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The IDEA: Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood

Arnett (2000) has proposed that the time of life roughly between ages 18-25 be considered a "distinct period" called emerging adulthood (EA). Essentially, this is a time when individuals tend to consider themselves too old to be adolescents, but not yet full-fledged adults. The Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) can be used to explore individual differences in self-identification with the processes of EA. Education of parents on the concept of EA could give parents added understanding of their children's life choices and delays in accomplishment of traditional adult...

Author of Tool: 
Reifman, A.

Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ)

The Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ) is a measure of adult attachment patterns.  It has separate scales to assess secure attachment tendencies and avoidant tendencies, and two scales reflecting aspects of the anxious-ambivalent pattern. This measure is based on four studies. Three studies relate self-reports of adult attachment qualities to broader aspects of personality. The pattern emerging from the studies indicates that avoidant attachment is inversely related to extraversion and to agreeableness but is relatively unrelated to manifest anxiety or neuroticism. Qualities of...

Author of Tool: 
Carver, C. S.

The Multidimentional Model of Black Identity (MMBI)

The Multidimentional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI) defines racial identity as that part of the person's self-concept that is related to her/his membership within a race. It is concerned with both the significance the individual places on race in defining him/herself and the individual's interpretations of what it means to be Black.  The MMRI proposes four dimensions of racial identity in African Americans: the salience of identity; the centrality of the identity; the ideology associated with the identity; and the regard in which the person holds African Americans.  The first two...

Author of Tool: 
Sellers, R.

Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ-IV)

Identity orientations refer to the relative importance that individuals place on various identity attributes or characteristics when constructing their self-definitions (Cheek, 1989). The development of the Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) began with the selection of items from Sampson's (1978) list of identity characteristics that were judged to represent the domains of personal and social identity (Cheek & Briggs, 1981, 1982). Subsequently, some items were reworded, others eliminated, and new items were developed to improve the reliability and content validity of the...

Author of Tool: 
Cheek, J. M. & Briggs, S. R.

Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

A key proposition of cognitive– behavioral models of social anxiety (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997) is that social anxiety is, in part, a response to perceived negative evaluation by others. The construct of fear of negative evaluation consists of feelings of apprehension about others’ evaluations, distress over these negative evaluations, and the expectation that others will evaluate one negatively (Watson & Friend, 1969). This construct is distinct from, but closely related to, social anxiety. Specifically, fear of negative evaluation pertains to the sense of...

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

Need to Belong Scale

The need to belong is one of the most fundamental and well-researched human motives. The need to belong is a‘‘strong desire to form and maintain enduring interpersonal attachments.’’ Researchers contend that this need can account for much of the research on interpersonal behavior. This Need to Belong Scale is the most recent and empirically sound of the current need to belong measures.

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS)

The Drive for Muscularity (DM) represents an individual's perception that he or she is not muscular enough and that bulk should be added to his or her body frame, in the form of muscle mass (irrespective of a person's percentage of actual muscle mass or body fat). DM is more prevalent in men, where past research has shown that a muscular mesomorphic body shape is considered to be more desirable than any other. However, recent research has shown that women also tend to show fairly high levels of DM, suggesting that this concept may be important for them too (but perhaps in different ways...

Author of Tool: 
McCreary, D. R.

Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.  That initial work has stimulated many others to conduct their own research, as is evident...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA)

The culture in which people live plays an important role in shaping their sense of self. Indeed, one facet of people's self-identity is that they belong to a certain cultural group. Thus, they have a sense of themselves as being, for example, Canadian, American, or Chinese. When an individual moves from one culture 
to another, many aspects of self-identity are modified to accommodate information about and experiences within the new culture. This process, generally referred to as acculturation, involves changes that take place as a result of continuous and direct contact...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS)

The pressures placed on young men and women to portray an ideal physique are predominant social forces in today’s society. A failure to live up to these standards, whether real or imagined, may induce thoughts and feelings that others are negatively evaluating one’s physique. In this case, social physique anxiety may be experienced (SPA; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989). Subsequently, individuals who are concerned that others are or may be judging their physiques negatively (i.e., SPA) may feel pressured by society’s ideals to engage in physical activity to enhance their physique and...

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

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