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Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ-IV)

Identity orientations refer to the relative importance that individuals place on various identity attributes or characteristics when constructing their self-definitions (Cheek, 1989). The development of the Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) began with the selection of items from Sampson's (1978) list of identity characteristics that were judged to represent the domains of personal and social identity (Cheek & Briggs, 1981, 1982). Subsequently, some items were reworded, others eliminated, and new items were developed to improve the reliability and content validity of the...

Author of Tool: 
Cheek, J. M. & Briggs, S. R.

Derogation of Competitors Instrument

The purpose of the derogation of competitors instrument is to measure for the likelihood of persons to form derogation tactics for competitor. Verbal signals are sometimes used to manipulate the impressions that people form about oneself and others. For the goal of self-enhancement, one can manipulate impressions either by elevating oneself or derogating others. Five hypothesis about derogation of same sex competitors were generated from an evolutionary model of human-mate competition. These hypothesis focused on sex-differences in the importance that humans attach to external resources,...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.

Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

A key proposition of cognitive– behavioral models of social anxiety (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997) is that social anxiety is, in part, a response to perceived negative evaluation by others. The construct of fear of negative evaluation consists of feelings of apprehension about others’ evaluations, distress over these negative evaluations, and the expectation that others will evaluate one negatively (Watson & Friend, 1969). This construct is distinct from, but closely related to, social anxiety. Specifically, fear of negative evaluation pertains to the sense of...

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

Need to Belong Scale

The need to belong is one of the most fundamental and well-researched human motives. The need to belong is a‘‘strong desire to form and maintain enduring interpersonal attachments.’’ Researchers contend that this need can account for much of the research on interpersonal behavior. This Need to Belong Scale is the most recent and empirically sound of the current need to belong measures.

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS)

The Drive for Muscularity (DM) represents an individual's perception that he or she is not muscular enough and that bulk should be added to his or her body frame, in the form of muscle mass (irrespective of a person's percentage of actual muscle mass or body fat). DM is more prevalent in men, where past research has shown that a muscular mesomorphic body shape is considered to be more desirable than any other. However, recent research has shown that women also tend to show fairly high levels of DM, suggesting that this concept may be important for them too (but perhaps in different ways...

Author of Tool: 
McCreary, D. R.

Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.  That initial work has stimulated many others to conduct their own research, as is evident...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA)

The culture in which people live plays an important role in shaping their sense of self. Indeed, one facet of people's self-identity is that they belong to a certain cultural group. Thus, they have a sense of themselves as being, for example, Canadian, American, or Chinese. When an individual moves from one culture 
to another, many aspects of self-identity are modified to accommodate information about and experiences within the new culture. This process, generally referred to as acculturation, involves changes that take place as a result of continuous and direct contact...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Emotions help us respond adaptively to environmental challenges and opportunities. Unlike other biologically based response tendencies, such as reflexes, however, emotions only incline us to act in certain ways; they do not compel us to do so. This means that we may deny expression to some emotional impulses while freely expressing others. Striking individual differences in ex-pressivity suggest that people differ in their response tendencies and in how they express these impulses as they arise. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three different facets of emotional...

Author of Tool: 
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P.

Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS)

The pressures placed on young men and women to portray an ideal physique are predominant social forces in today’s society. A failure to live up to these standards, whether real or imagined, may induce thoughts and feelings that others are negatively evaluating one’s physique. In this case, social physique anxiety may be experienced (SPA; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989). Subsequently, individuals who are concerned that others are or may be judging their physiques negatively (i.e., SPA) may feel pressured by society’s ideals to engage in physical activity to enhance their physique and...

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

Imposterism Scale

The impostor phenomenon refers to people who are objectively competent but feel the opposite and therefore fear being unmasked. In light of the strength and pervasiveness of the self-esteem motive, the impostor phenomenon presents an enigma because so-called impostors appear to lack this fundamental tendency for self-enhancement. According to previous work, impostors experience discomfort when they succeed, attribute their successes to factors other than their ability, and deny they are as competent as their behavior seems to indicate (Clance, 1985; Clance & Imes, 1978; Harvey &...

Author of Tool: 
Leary, M. R.

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