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Jealousy Instrument

Evolutionary psychologists hypothesised over three decades ago that men and women would differ psychologically in the weighting given to cues that trigger jealousy (Symons, 1979). A man's jealousy has been hypothesised to focus on cues to sexual infidelity because a long term partner's infidelity jeapordises his certainty in paternity, thereby placing him at risk of investing in another man's offspring. A woman's jealousy has been hypothesised to relate to cues to the long-term diversion of a man's commitment. The Jealousy Instrument is a 22 item questionnaire of events relating to...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.

Mate Retention Inventory (Male, Self-Reported) MRI-MSR

Maintaining a romantic relationship can be difficult work fraught with conflicts and challenges.Inadequate finances, meddling in-laws, and personality clashes, for example, can be sources of conflict in a romantic relationship. Perhaps the most important threat to a romantic relationship is infidelity (see Buss, 2000). Indicators of the likelihood of infidelity are key criteria that men and women use to select a long-term partner (Buss, 1989), and infidelity is a frequently cited cause of relationship dissolution and divorce across cultures (Betzig, 1989). An important part of maintaining a...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D. M.

Mate Retention Inventory (Short Form) MRI-SF

People devote considerable effort to retaining their mates. Mate retention tactics range from vigilance to violence, and are linked to variables such as marital satisfaction and relationship aggression. The Mate Retention Inventory (MRI; 104 items comprising 19 tactics) has proven to be reliable and valid. Given the importance of assessing mate retention in various contexts, there is a need for a briefer version of the MRI. Therefore, the authors developed this short form of the MRI (the MRI-SF), which assesses performance of 19 mate retention tactics using two items per tactic.

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D. M.

Susceptibility to Infidelity Instrument

Infidelity is a major cause of divorce and spousal battering. Little is known, however, about which individuals are susceptible to infidelity, or about the relationship contexts that promote infidelity. Personality factors most strongly linked to susceptibility to infidelity according to the study from which this instrument was created, were low Conscientiousness, high Narcissism, and high Psychoticism. Relationship contexts most strongly linked to susceptibility to infidelity include sexual dissatisfaction, and specific sources of conflict such as partner complaints about jealousy. For the...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K

Characteristics Desired in Friend

The authors of this scale hypothesized that people form opposite-sex friendships (OSFs), in part, to acquire long-term mates (both sexes), to gain short-term sexual access (men more than women), and to gain physical protection (women more than men). They hypothesized that men and women have evolved psychological mechanisms that are designed to guide the initiation, selection, and dissolution of opposite sex friendships. This hypothesis assumes that opposite sex friendships solved specific adaptive problems that ancestral men and women faced recurrently over the course of human...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

Costs and Benefits of Friendship

Friends do not share copies of our genes, nor do we generally reproduce with our friends. Around the world, however, people form friendships that last for days, years, and even a lifetime. One of the complexities of friendship is that some characteristics of friendship are perceived as both beneficial and costly. The friendship literature, for example, is inconsistent on the role of sexuality in opposite-sex friendship. More than half of men and some women report sexual attraction to their friends (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and both sexes experience ambiguity about the sexual boundaries...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

Reasons for Dissolving a Friendship

An evolutionary psychological perspective on friendship suggests that sex and relationship status may predict people’s motivations for initiating, selecting, and dissolving opposite-sex friendships. Men and women are predicted to differ psychologically in domains in which they recurrently faced different adaptive problems over human evolutionary history (Buss, 1995). Women, for example, have faced a 9-month obligatory investment to produce a child. Men have not. Historically, the direct reproductive benefits in offspring production from gaining sexual access to a variety of mates would...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

Mate Poaching Inventory

A critical adaptive problem is that sometimes, desirable mates are already mated and therefore not available in the eligible mating pool. Some researchers have argued, on the basis of analyses of traditional cultures, that in human ancestral conditions, most women became married at or shorty after puberty. This mating context would have severely exasperated the adaptive problem of finding a mate for those who were not already mated, particularly for men. Any degree of polygyny, a possible reoccurring feature of our past, would have further intensified the problem. The authors of this scale...

Author of Tool: 
Schmitt, D.P., & Buss, D.M.

An Adjective Measure of Sexual Strategies

According to evolutionary personality theory, variation in sexuality and human mating tendencies may be especially important dimensions of individual differences (Buss, 1991). Differences in sexuality acquire importance from an evolutionary perspective because events that surround reproduction are pivotal in shaping our evolved psychology. Individual differences in sexuality, because of their proximity to reproductive events, are often the targets of selection, have consequences for solutions to the specific adaptive problems of mating, and likely affect the course of current evolution. ...

Author of Tool: 
Schmitt, D.P., & Buss, D.M.

Reasons for Having Sex Questionnaire (YSEX)

Historically, the reasons people have sex have been assumed to be few in number and simple in nature–to reproduce, to experience pleasure, or to relieve sexual tension. Several theoretical perspectives suggest that motives for engaging in sexual intercourse may be larger in number and psychologically complex in nature. Reasons vary with gender, with relationship status, with societal status etc. The Reasons for Having Sex Questionnaire (YSEX) attempts to measure the applicability of reasons for having sex, the response choices being listed on a 5-point Likert scale, with scale interval...

Author of Tool: 
Meston, C., & Buss, D.M.

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