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Fear of Physician (FOP)

Many people are fearful and/or anxious about communicating with their physician. It is believed that this fear/anxiety is in some part a function of the way the physician communicates with the patient. This Fear of Physician (FOP) instrument was developed to measure that feeling. The FOP is an extension of the 5-item state anxiety measure developed by Spielberger (1966).

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., Smith, R. S., Heisel, A. M., & McCroskey, J. C.

Richmond Humour Assessment Instrument (RHAI)

The Richmond Humor Assessment Instrument (RHAI) is a 16-item self-report measure that uses a 5-point Likert format. The instrument was developed by Richmond (1999) to measure an individual's predisposition to reenact humour messages during an interaction. Researchers believe that teaching people to be humerous can help with stress and family problems, make them more popular, and they will have improved self-concepts.

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P.

Willingness To Communicate (WTC)

The study of various general orientations toward communication has held an important place in communication research for over a half-century. This research has been conducted under a wide variety of conceptualizations. These have included stage fright, speech anxiety, communication apprehension, shyness, reticence, unwillingness to communicate, willingness to communicate, talkativeness, verbal activity, vocal activity, and a number of others. Although these are all related constructs, there are important distinctions among them. One group of constructs relates to anxiety or apprehension...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P.

Tolerance for Disagreement Scale (TFD)

The Tolerance For Disagreement (TFD) Scale is designed to measure the degree to which an individual can tolerate other people disagreeing with what the individual believes to be true. This conceptualization is similar to that of argumentativeness. People with high argumentativeness are likely to be able to deal with more disagreement than those people who are low in argumentativeness. It is believed that conflict in interpersonal communication is in large part (in conjunction with the level of liking between the people) a function of the tolerance of disagreement of the interactants.

Author of Tool: 
Teven, J. J., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C.

Source Credibility Measures

Measurement of source credibility has been a concern of the Communication discipline for over 40 years. The first multidimensional measure appeared in the Communication literature in 1966 (McCroskey, J .C., Scales for the measurement of ethos, Speech Monographs, 33, 65-72) and provided scales measuring competence and trustworthiness. Many other studies were conducted over the next 30 years. This Source Credibility Measure is the most complete measure and includes scales for three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill/caring. These are measures of constructs which are...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J.

Individual Innovativeness (II)

An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (like an organisation). People and organisations vary a great deal in their "innovativeness." Innovativeness has to do with how early in the process of adoption of new ideas, practices, etc. that the individual or organization is likely to accept a change. The Individual Innovativeness (II) scale was designed to measure individuals' orientations toward change. Research has indicated that this orientation is associated with several communication variables. 

Author of Tool: 
Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O)

Immediacy, particular non-verbal immediacy has received increasing attention from communication scholars. In general, this research indicates that communicators who engage in non-verbal immediate behaviour with others are seen by those others in a more positive way. This Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O) addresses problems of previous scales which measure this. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. E

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S)

The Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S) is based on the immediacy of people in relation to communication. This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as a self-report. Since the purpose was to develop a measure that could be employed either as a self-report or as an other-report, some items from the measure were drawn from previously used measures. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. D.

Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA)

Intercultural communication apprehension (lCA) is conceptualized as the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people of different groups, especially cultural and ethnic and/or racial groups. This Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA) Instrument is presumed to be better than the PRCA24 for this particular communication context. However, it is substantially correlated with the PRCA24. This suggests that interethnic communication apprehension is a sub-category of general communication apprehension.

Author of Tool: 
Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.

Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA)

This measure was developed as a part of a continuing research program investigating the effects of systematic desensitization on communication apprehension. The Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety Scale (PRPSA)  is an excellent measure for research which centers on public speaking anxiety, but is an inadequate measure of the broader communication apprehension construct.

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C.

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