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The Day Reconstruction Method (DRC)

The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) assesses how people spend their time and how they experience the various activities and settings of their lives, combining features of time-budget measurement and experience sampling. Participants systematically reconstruct their activities and experiences of the preceding day with procedures designed to reduce recall biases. The benefits of the DRM as outlined by the authors are: joint assessment of activities and subjective experiences, information about the duration of each experience, allowing for duration weighted analyses of experiences, lower...

Author of Tool: 
Kahneman, D., Kreuger, A. B., & Schkade, D. A.

Derogation of Competitors Instrument

The purpose of the derogation of competitors instrument is to measure for the likelihood of persons to form derogation tactics for competitor. Verbal signals are sometimes used to manipulate the impressions that people form about oneself and others. For the goal of self-enhancement, one can manipulate impressions either by elevating oneself or derogating others. Five hypothesis about derogation of same sex competitors were generated from an evolutionary model of human-mate competition. These hypothesis focused on sex-differences in the importance that humans attach to external resources,...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.

Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.  That initial work has stimulated many others to conduct their own research, as is evident...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Emotions help us respond adaptively to environmental challenges and opportunities. Unlike other biologically based response tendencies, such as reflexes, however, emotions only incline us to act in certain ways; they do not compel us to do so. This means that we may deny expression to some emotional impulses while freely expressing others. Striking individual differences in ex-pressivity suggest that people differ in their response tendencies and in how they express these impulses as they arise. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three different facets of emotional...

Author of Tool: 
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P.

Questionnaires from a Typical Writing Study

These questionnaires ask a series of questions relating to college experience. In the Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990) study, participants were told  "During today's session, I want you to let go and write about your very deepest thoughts and feelings about coming to college. College, as you know, is a major transition. In your writing, you might want to write about your emotions and thoughts about leaving your friends or your parents, about issues of adjusting to the various aspects of college such as roommates, classes, or thoughts about your future, or even about...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W

The Emotional Self- Disclosure Scale (ESDS)

People vary in how willingly and how often they discuss their emotional experiences with others. Research indicates that men and women sometimes diverge in their disclosure tendencies, usually in response to unique characteristics associated with the topic and recipient of the disclosure.The Emotional Self-Disclosure Survey (ESDS) consists of 40 topics concerned with the types of feelings and emotions that people experience at one time or another in their life. This survey is concened with the extent to which you have discussed these feelings and emotions with your counselor.

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S.

The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS)

The research literature on self-disclosure is not consistent with gender stereotypes. While some studies demonstrate that women are more self-revealing than men, some find the opposite to be the case. The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS) has four separate subscales: two masculine scales assess the tendency to discuss agentic, instrumental traits and behaviors; and two feminine scales measure the tendency to self-disclose about communal, expressive traits and behaviors. 

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr.

Costs and Benefits of Friendship

Friends do not share copies of our genes, nor do we generally reproduce with our friends. Around the world, however, people form friendships that last for days, years, and even a lifetime. One of the complexities of friendship is that some characteristics of friendship are perceived as both beneficial and costly. The friendship literature, for example, is inconsistent on the role of sexuality in opposite-sex friendship. More than half of men and some women report sexual attraction to their friends (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and both sexes experience ambiguity about the sexual boundaries...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

A Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) Scale

People differ in the way they resolve decisions involving risk and uncertainty, and these differences are often described as differences in risk attitude. In the expected utility framework and its variants, including prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992), such apparent differences in risk attitude are modeled by utility functions that differ in shape, with different degrees of concavity (convexity) to explain risk aversion (seeking). Risk attitude is the parameter that differentiates between the utility functions of different individuals (e.g., Pratt...

Author of Tool: 
Blais, Ann-René and Weber, Elke U.

Regulatory Fit Induction (RFI) Instrument

The preposition is that the fit between an action's strategic orientation and the actor's regulatory state can influence the amount of enjoyment the action provides. Regulatory fit can be manipulated both incidentally and integrally. Incidental regulatory fit involves activating fit separately from the context of the task of interest. Integral regulatory fit involves activating fit within the context of the task of interest; there are many ways to induce integral fit (see for example Cesario, Higgins, & Scholer, 2007). Regulatory fit, whether manipulated incidentally or integrally, can...

Author of Tool: 
Higgins, E. T.

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