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Conflict Between the Sexes Instrument

Conflict is predicted to occur whenever the reproductive strategy adopted by one sex interferes with that adopted by the opposite sex. Conflict is expected among unrelated members of the same sex, for example, because they frequently compete for access to the same choice resources such as food, status, and mating opportunities. Conflict during certain periods is expected between parents and their children and between siblings because in these relationships half of the genetic interests are distinct (Trivers, 1974). Despite its theoretical importance and everyday prevalence, little...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.

Costs and Benefits of Friendship

Friends do not share copies of our genes, nor do we generally reproduce with our friends. Around the world, however, people form friendships that last for days, years, and even a lifetime. One of the complexities of friendship is that some characteristics of friendship are perceived as both beneficial and costly. The friendship literature, for example, is inconsistent on the role of sexuality in opposite-sex friendship. More than half of men and some women report sexual attraction to their friends (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and both sexes experience ambiguity about the sexual boundaries...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS)

Mood experience id comprised of at least two elements: the direct experience of the mood, and the meta-level of experience that consists of thoughts and feelings about the mood. Here, mood is experienced at a reflective level. This reflective level has been studied in part, however the development of the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS) is a first attempt to integrate these reflective experiences, and to think of them functionally, as the products of a regulatory process that monitors, evaluates, and sometimes acts to change mood.  

Author of Tool: 
Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N

The NPI-16 Subclinical narcissism

Narcissism has received increased attention in the past few decades as a sub-clinical individual difference with important everyday consequences, such as self-enhancement in perceptions of one’s own behavior and attributes. The most widespread measure used by non-clinical researchers, the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory or NPI-40, captures a range of different facets of the construct but its length may prohibit its use in settings where time pressure and respondent fatigue are major concerns. the NPI-16 subclinical narcissism scale facilitates research where a longer measure...

Author of Tool: 
Ames, D. R., Rose, P., and Anderson, C. P.

The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS)

The clinical diagnostic criteria for the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (DSM-III) (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) stimulated the interest of personality psychologists in the normal range of individual differences innarcissistic tendencies (Emmons, 1987; Raskin & Terry, 1988; Wink &Gough, 1990). The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS) is a measure of hypersensitive narcissism derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism.

Author of Tool: 
Hendin, H.M., & Cheek, J.M.

Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (CRSQ)

Some children respond to social rejection in ways that undermine their relationships. Others respond with more equanimity. The Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (CRSQ) assesses children's disposition to defensively (anxiously or angrily) expect, readily perceive, and overreact to social rejection. 

Author of Tool: 
Downey, G., Lebolt, A., Rincón, C., and Freitas, A. L.

RSQ/RS - Personal (8 item and 18 item)

The desire to achieve acceptance and to avoid rejection is widely acknowledged to be a central human motive (Homey, 1937; Maslow, 1987; McClelland, 1987; Rogers, 1959; Sullivan, 1937; see Baumeister & Leary, 1995, for a review). Consistent with this claim, social rejection is known to diminish well-being and disrupt interpersonal functioning. However, people differ in their readiness to perceive and react to rejection. Some people interpret undesirable interpersonal 
events benignly and maintain equanimity in their wake. Others readily perceive intentional rejection in the...

Author of Tool: 
Downey, G., & Feldman, S. I.

RS-Race Questionnaire

A history of rejecting experiences based on status characteristics can lead to doubts about one’s acceptance by members of these social institutions (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999; Crocker, Luhtanen, Broadnax, & Blaine, 1999; Goffman, 1963; Tyler, 1990; Tyler & Smith, 1998). Despite the removal of legal and other structural barriers to achieving diversity, research suggests that some members of historically excluded groups continue to experience such doubts in social institutions that have marginalized them in the past (Bowen &...

Author of Tool: 
Mendoza-Denton, R., Downey, G., Purdie, V., & Davis, A.

Regulatory Focus Strength (RFS)

Psychologists have recognized for a long time that a major determinant of the perceived value of an event is the extent to which it fulfills the perceiver's goals. Psychologists have also recognized that emotional responses to goal attainment include emotional responses to whether one's perceived actual self is congruent with or discrepant from one's desired self. When individuals' represented actual self fulfills their goals about who they would ideally like to be or believe they ought to be, they feel good. When it does not, they feel bad (e.g., Cooley, 1902/ 1964; James, 189011948;...

Author of Tool: 
Higgins, E. T.

Regulatory Fit Induction (RFI) Instrument

The preposition is that the fit between an action's strategic orientation and the actor's regulatory state can influence the amount of enjoyment the action provides. Regulatory fit can be manipulated both incidentally and integrally. Incidental regulatory fit involves activating fit separately from the context of the task of interest. Integral regulatory fit involves activating fit within the context of the task of interest; there are many ways to induce integral fit (see for example Cesario, Higgins, & Scholer, 2007). Regulatory fit, whether manipulated incidentally or integrally, can...

Author of Tool: 
Higgins, E. T.

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