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Derogation of Competitors Instrument

The purpose of the derogation of competitors instrument is to measure for the likelihood of persons to form derogation tactics for competitor. Verbal signals are sometimes used to manipulate the impressions that people form about oneself and others. For the goal of self-enhancement, one can manipulate impressions either by elevating oneself or derogating others. Five hypothesis about derogation of same sex competitors were generated from an evolutionary model of human-mate competition. These hypothesis focused on sex-differences in the importance that humans attach to external resources,...

Author of Tool: 
Buss, D.

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Emotions help us respond adaptively to environmental challenges and opportunities. Unlike other biologically based response tendencies, such as reflexes, however, emotions only incline us to act in certain ways; they do not compel us to do so. This means that we may deny expression to some emotional impulses while freely expressing others. Striking individual differences in ex-pressivity suggest that people differ in their response tendencies and in how they express these impulses as they arise. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three different facets of emotional...

Author of Tool: 
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P.

Positive Event (uplift) Scale for Middle Aged Adults (frequency and severity)

In the 1980s, using the cognitive transactual model of stress, Lazarus and colleagues highlighted daily events (hassles) as better predictors of negative psychological and somatic outcomes than major life events (Kanner et al., 1981). Lazarus’s cognitive appraisal (transactual) theory suggests that individuals cognitively evaluate or appraise environmental events in relation to their own person-related characteristics, thereby determining the type and quality of the emotional response (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984; Lazarus, 1991, 1999). While day-to-day negative events, or hassles, have...

Author of Tool: 
Mayberry, D. J.

Positive Event (uplift) Scale for University Students

Up until the 1980’s, event measurement was characterised by important life events such as marriages, accidents and deaths (e.g., Holmes and Rahe, 1967). At that time, Lazarus and colleagues highlighted daily events (hassles) as better predictors of negative psychological and somatic outcomes than major life events (Kanner et al., 1981). Daily events are theoretically embedded within the cognitive transactual model of stress. This theory suggests that individual’s cognitively evaluate or appraise environmental events in relation to their own person-related characteristics, otherwise known...

Author of Tool: 
Mayberry, D. J.

Negative Event (hassle) Scale for University Students

Over the years hassle and uplift measurement has received considerable criticism. It has been suggested that the hassle scales of Kanner and Delongis are perhaps flawed because they confound frequency of event occurrence and severity information in each item Hassle items on the Kanner scale are also thought contaminated with outcome measures of stress.4 Others have suggested that items on these scales are not representative of a broad range of population subgroups (being designed for a middle-aged population). In addition, the Kanner hassle scale asks subject’s to rate the severity of the...

Author of Tool: 
Maybery, D. J.

Negative Event (hassle) Scale for Middle Aged Adults (frequency and severity)

Maybery and colleagues initially highlighted face and content validity problems with hassle measurement generally and then demonstrated predictive validity improvements to the Lazarus hassle scale by adding a substantial range of interpersonal events (Maybery & Graham, 2001). In developing a new hassle measure for University students, a coherent, valid, and reliable component subscale structure was highlighted that included a number of interpersonal subscales (Maybery, 2003a). Further research employing that measure demonstrated the predictive utility of global versus molecular...

Author of Tool: 
Maybery, D. J.

Questionnaires from a Typical Writing Study

These questionnaires ask a series of questions relating to college experience. In the Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990) study, participants were told  "During today's session, I want you to let go and write about your very deepest thoughts and feelings about coming to college. College, as you know, is a major transition. In your writing, you might want to write about your emotions and thoughts about leaving your friends or your parents, about issues of adjusting to the various aspects of college such as roommates, classes, or thoughts about your future, or even about...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

The issue of understanding the world is particularly relevant to our confronting upsetting or traumatic experiences. If we get a parking ticket, we may briefly ponder our sin, put it into perspective, pay the fine, and ultimately forget it. Such a minor trauma may cause slight anxiety and cause us to think briefly about the nature of cars, parking slots, and the role of police in our society. Other traumas are not dispensed with so easily. If we were molested as children, fired from our jobs, or mugged, far more physiological and cognitive activity would ensue. A fundamental...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W. & Susman, J.R.

Life Engagement Test (LET)

Recent models of behavioral self-regulation (Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1990, 1998), themselves descendents of generations of expectancyvalue models of motivation (Atkinson, 1964; Vroom, 1964; Feather, 1982; Shah and Higgins, 1997), suggest that two elements are important in creating behavior: (a) the ability to identify goals that are valued and (b) the perception that those goals are attainable. Of these two elements, it is the value dimension that is of interest here. Valued goals are important because they provide a purpose for living. Valued goals also provide the mechanism by which...

Author of Tool: 
Scheier, M. F., Wrosch, C., Baum, A., Cohen, S., Martire, L. M., Matthews, K. A., Schulz, R., & Zdaniuk, B.

Goal Adjustment Scale--(GAS)

People cannot always attain their goals. For example, sociostructural, biological, and normative factors can reduce the opportunities for goal attainment as people advance in age (Heckhausen & Schulz, 1995). Biologically and socially determined rules govern when people should retire, and there are implicit age norms guiding important life transitions (Baltes, Cornelius, & Nesselroade, 1979; Neugarten, 1969). The sequential nature of development also requires individuals of all ages to go through different life stages (Havighurst, 1973), frequently forcing them to leave valued...

Author of Tool: 
Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., Miller, G. E., Schulz, R., & Carver, C. S.

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