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Willingness To Communicate (WTC)

The study of various general orientations toward communication has held an important place in communication research for over a half-century. This research has been conducted under a wide variety of conceptualizations. These have included stage fright, speech anxiety, communication apprehension, shyness, reticence, unwillingness to communicate, willingness to communicate, talkativeness, verbal activity, vocal activity, and a number of others. Although these are all related constructs, there are important distinctions among them. One group of constructs relates to anxiety or apprehension...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P.

Tolerance for Disagreement Scale (TFD)

The Tolerance For Disagreement (TFD) Scale is designed to measure the degree to which an individual can tolerate other people disagreeing with what the individual believes to be true. This conceptualization is similar to that of argumentativeness. People with high argumentativeness are likely to be able to deal with more disagreement than those people who are low in argumentativeness. It is believed that conflict in interpersonal communication is in large part (in conjunction with the level of liking between the people) a function of the tolerance of disagreement of the interactants.

Author of Tool: 
Teven, J. J., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C.

Source Credibility Measures

Measurement of source credibility has been a concern of the Communication discipline for over 40 years. The first multidimensional measure appeared in the Communication literature in 1966 (McCroskey, J .C., Scales for the measurement of ethos, Speech Monographs, 33, 65-72) and provided scales measuring competence and trustworthiness. Many other studies were conducted over the next 30 years. This Source Credibility Measure is the most complete measure and includes scales for three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill/caring. These are measures of constructs which are...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J.

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O)

Immediacy, particular non-verbal immediacy has received increasing attention from communication scholars. In general, this research indicates that communicators who engage in non-verbal immediate behaviour with others are seen by those others in a more positive way. This Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O) addresses problems of previous scales which measure this. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. E

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S)

The Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S) is based on the immediacy of people in relation to communication. This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as a self-report. Since the purpose was to develop a measure that could be employed either as a self-report or as an other-report, some items from the measure were drawn from previously used measures. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. D.

Attitudes to Surgical Checklist Questionnaire

Surgical checklists have been shown to be effective in reducing mortality rates and improving teamworking when applied in operating theatres.However, despite the benefits of checklist for patient safety, in some cases the practical implementation of the checklist has been found to be less than universal, and to decay over time.Based upon 14 semi-structured interviews, the 27-item questionnaire attitudes to surgical checklist questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire consisted of five subscales: attitudes towards hospital norms on the use of the checklist (five items), the impact of...

Author of Tool: 
O'Connor, Reddin, O'Sullivan, O'Duffy, & Keogh

Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA)

Intercultural communication apprehension (lCA) is conceptualized as the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people of different groups, especially cultural and ethnic and/or racial groups. This Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA) Instrument is presumed to be better than the PRCA24 for this particular communication context. However, it is substantially correlated with the PRCA24. This suggests that interethnic communication apprehension is a sub-category of general communication apprehension.

Author of Tool: 
Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.

Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA)

This measure was developed as a part of a continuing research program investigating the effects of systematic desensitization on communication apprehension. The Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety Scale (PRPSA)  is an excellent measure for research which centers on public speaking anxiety, but is an inadequate measure of the broader communication apprehension construct.

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C.

Shyness Scale (SS)

This Shyness Scale (SS) measure is also referred to as the McCroskey Shyness Scale. It was developed to obtain individual's self-report of their shy behavior. Unlike many shyness scales that have been developed in the field of Psychology, this scale does not confound communication apprehension  with shy behavior. These are two very different constructs and adding items from both provide an uninterpretable score. Communication apprehension relates to fear and/or anxiety about communicating. Willingness to Communicate (WTC) relates to an orientation to initiate communication. Shyness relates...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P.

SocioCommunicative Style Scale (SCS)

Socio-communicative style refers to others' perception of a communicator's assertiveness and responsiveness behaviors. The SocioCommunicative Style Scale (SCS) is designed to measure the perceptions of these behaviors. Generally, these perceived behaviors are uncorrelated. These are two of the three components of the SCS construct. The third component is variously labeled as "versatility" or "flexibility." This third component is best measured by the "Cognitive Flexibility" scale.

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C.

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