The S-PAPA uses open-ended, dichotomous, multichotomous, and checklist formatting and has 7 background items and three modules: (a) Physical Education (40 items); (b) Recess (27 items), and (c) Other Before, During, and After School Programs (15 items). Test-retest results suggest SPAPA items are reliable and can be useful in assessing PA policies in elementary schools (Lounsbery et al., 2011). Total administration time for all three modules is approximately 23 minutes.
The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System (BEACHES) is a direct observation system used to simultaneously record children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviors as well as related environmental characteristics and events. The physical activity codes have been validated using heart rate monitors and accelerometers, and the system can be used in homes, schools, and most settings where children might be found.The original system was developed within the framework of behavioral analysis and included coding for 10 separate dimensions. These dimensions...
To determine how physical characteristics of trails may influence use, reliable and valid audit tools are needed. The Path Environment Audit Tool (PEAT) was developed with design, amenity, and aesthetics/maintenance items. Two observers independently audited 185 trail segments at 6 Massachusetts facilities. GPS-derived items were used as a "gold standard." Kappa (k) statistics, observed agreement and ICCs were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and validity. Fifteen of 16 primary amenity items had k-values > 0.49 ("moderate") and all had observed agreement > 81%. Seven...
See Author's guidebook for more detailed information.
Urban design qualities depend on physical features but are distinct from them. They reflect the general way in which people perceive and interact with the environment. The urban design qualities operationalized in this manual are:
• human scale
Prior to this, Autism was generally not detected before 3 years of age. As early intervention is vital, this instrument was designed to make detection possible from 18 months. The Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) is administered by a health professional, both by asking the parent questions and directly observing and interacting with the child.
Sjostrom and colleagues (2006) found that about two thirds of adults in the European Union do not get engage in enough physical activity to access the associated health benefits. Findings such as this have prompted researchers to investigate the environmental determinants of physical activity. Instruments have been developed to assess the suitability of environments worldwide for physical activity. The ALPHA Measure of Environmental Perceptions is designed for use in European settings. It is composed of 49 items centered around 9 themes: types of residences in your neighbourhood, ...
The original version of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) was designed by Dr. Steven L. Wolf, Emory University School of Medicine (Wolf, Lecraw, Barton & Jann, 1989). It has since been modified by researchers Taub, Blanton, & McCullough from the UAS CI Therapy Research Group. The modified version of the test has also been employed extensively with chronic patients who had suffered mild to moderate stroke (Taub, Miller, Novack, Cook, Fleming, Nepomuceno, Connell, & Crago, 1993; Taub, Crago, & Uswatte, 1998).
According to the CDC, in 2001, nearly 12,000 people age 65+ died from fall-related injuries. It is apparent that a clinical assessment tool that will detect the complex nature related to balance and falls in the elderly population before, as well as after sustaining a fall, is necessary. One instrument developed to do this is the Four Square Step Test (FSST). This is a timed test, intended to perturb the rapid change in direction while stepping forward, backward and sideways over a low obstacle.
In the original Ashworth Scale, resistance to passive movement about a joint with varying degrees of velocity is measured on a scale of 0 (no resistance) to 4 (rigidity). In the modified Ashworth Scale, a 1+ scoring category is added to indicate resistance through less than half of the movement (Bohannon & Smith, 1987).