Immediacy, particular non-verbal immediacy has received increasing attention from communication scholars. In general, this research indicates that communicators who engage in non-verbal immediate behaviour with others are seen by those others in a more positive way. This Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O) addresses problems of previous scales which measure this.
The Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S) is based on the immediacy of people in relation to communication. This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as a self-report. Since the purpose was to develop a measure that could be employed either as a self-report or as an other-report, some items from the measure were drawn from previously used measures.
This measure was developed as a part of a continuing research program investigating the effects of systematic desensitization on communication apprehension. The Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety Scale (PRPSA) is an excellent measure for research which centers on public speaking anxiety, but is an inadequate measure of the broader communication apprehension construct.
This Shyness Scale (SS) measure is also referred to as the McCroskey Shyness Scale. It was developed to obtain individual's self-report of their shy behavior. Unlike many shyness scales that have been developed in the field of Psychology, this scale does not confound communication apprehension with shy behavior. These are two very different constructs and adding items from both provide an uninterpretable score. Communication apprehension relates to fear and/or anxiety about communicating. Willingness to Communicate (WTC) relates to an orientation to initiate communication. Shyness relates...
Socio-communicative style refers to others' perception of a communicator's assertiveness and responsiveness behaviors. The SocioCommunicative Style Scale (SCS) is designed to measure the perceptions of these behaviors. Generally, these perceived behaviors are uncorrelated. These are two of the three components of the SCS construct. The third component is variously labeled as "versatility" or "flexibility." This third component is best measured by the "Cognitive Flexibility" scale.
Sociocommunicative orientation refers to an individual's perception of how assertive and responsive he/she is. This Socio-Communicative Orientation Scale (SCO) is designed to measures these orientations. Generally, these orientations are either totally uncorrelated or only marginally correlated (r < .30). These are two of the three components of the SCO construct. The third component is variously labeled as "versatility" or "flexibility." This third component is best measured by the "Cognitive Flexibility" scale.
The Situational Communication Apprehension Measure (SCAM) was developed to provide and instrument which could measure state CA in any context. This is a self-report instrument which can apply to how a person felt in any recent communication event (the closer in time between the event and completion of this instrument, the more valid the measure will be).
Several theorists have argued that two general motivational systems underlie behavior. A behavioral approach system (BAS) is believed to regulate appetitive motives, in which the goal is to move toward something desired. A behavioral avoidance (or inhibition) system (BIS) is said to regulate aversive motives, in which the goal is to move away from something unpleasant. We developed the BIS/BAS scales to assess individual differences in the sensitivity of these systems. The BIS/BAS scales are available for research and teaching applications.
The Measure of Current Status (MOCS) scale comes from research on the effects of a multi-modal cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on the psychosocial well-being of breast cancer patients. An important question is whether the intervention's beneficial effects have several sources or one principle source. In order to probe for possible "active ingredients" behind the intervention’s effects, Carver developed a brief measure called the Measure of Current Status, or MOCS. The MOCS has two sections. Part A is items measuring participants' current self-perceived status on...