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Need for Closure Scale (NFC)

The decision to pursue or avoid closure is motivated by the costs and benefits of choices in the particular situation (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). The benefits of closure include the ability to act once a decision is made and the possibility of receiving action-related rewards. The costs of closure include consuming cognitive energy, the risk of making costly judgmental errors, and the reduction of options and freedom that follows from making a decision. The weighting of benefits and costs can be experimentally manipulated by inducing mental fatigue through lengthy tests or by...

Author of Tool: 
Kruglanski, A. W., Atash, M. N., De Grada, E., Mannetti, L., & Pierro, A.

Questionnaires from a Typical Writing Study

These questionnaires ask a series of questions relating to college experience. In the Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990) study, participants were told  "During today's session, I want you to let go and write about your very deepest thoughts and feelings about coming to college. College, as you know, is a major transition. In your writing, you might want to write about your emotions and thoughts about leaving your friends or your parents, about issues of adjusting to the various aspects of college such as roommates, classes, or thoughts about your future, or even about...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

The issue of understanding the world is particularly relevant to our confronting upsetting or traumatic experiences. If we get a parking ticket, we may briefly ponder our sin, put it into perspective, pay the fine, and ultimately forget it. Such a minor trauma may cause slight anxiety and cause us to think briefly about the nature of cars, parking slots, and the role of police in our society. Other traumas are not dispensed with so easily. If we were molested as children, fired from our jobs, or mugged, far more physiological and cognitive activity would ensue. A fundamental...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W. & Susman, J.R.

The Emotional Self- Disclosure Scale (ESDS)

People vary in how willingly and how often they discuss their emotional experiences with others. Research indicates that men and women sometimes diverge in their disclosure tendencies, usually in response to unique characteristics associated with the topic and recipient of the disclosure.The Emotional Self-Disclosure Survey (ESDS) consists of 40 topics concerned with the types of feelings and emotions that people experience at one time or another in their life. This survey is concened with the extent to which you have discussed these feelings and emotions with your counselor.

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S.

The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS)

The research literature on self-disclosure is not consistent with gender stereotypes. While some studies demonstrate that women are more self-revealing than men, some find the opposite to be the case. The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS) has four separate subscales: two masculine scales assess the tendency to discuss agentic, instrumental traits and behaviors; and two feminine scales measure the tendency to self-disclose about communal, expressive traits and behaviors. 

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr.

Costs and Benefits of Friendship

Friends do not share copies of our genes, nor do we generally reproduce with our friends. Around the world, however, people form friendships that last for days, years, and even a lifetime. One of the complexities of friendship is that some characteristics of friendship are perceived as both beneficial and costly. The friendship literature, for example, is inconsistent on the role of sexuality in opposite-sex friendship. More than half of men and some women report sexual attraction to their friends (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and both sexes experience ambiguity about the sexual boundaries...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (CRSQ)

Some children respond to social rejection in ways that undermine their relationships. Others respond with more equanimity. The Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (CRSQ) assesses children's disposition to defensively (anxiously or angrily) expect, readily perceive, and overreact to social rejection. 

Author of Tool: 
Downey, G., Lebolt, A., Rincón, C., and Freitas, A. L.

Regulatory Fit Induction (RFI) Instrument

The preposition is that the fit between an action's strategic orientation and the actor's regulatory state can influence the amount of enjoyment the action provides. Regulatory fit can be manipulated both incidentally and integrally. Incidental regulatory fit involves activating fit separately from the context of the task of interest. Integral regulatory fit involves activating fit within the context of the task of interest; there are many ways to induce integral fit (see for example Cesario, Higgins, & Scholer, 2007). Regulatory fit, whether manipulated incidentally or integrally, can...

Author of Tool: 
Higgins, E. T.

Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC)

Guided by Grych and Fincham's theoretical framework for investigating the relation between interparental conflict and child adjustment, The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) was developed to assess children's views of several aspects of marital conflict.

Author of Tool: 
Fincham, F.D.

Children’s Relationship Attribution Measure (CRAM)

The study of children's perceptions of family events has led to increased understanding of their reactions to such events at both theoretical (e.g., Davies & Cummings, 1994; Grych & Fincham, 1990) and empirical levels (e.g., Grych, Seid, & Fincham, 1992; Kurdek & Berg, 1987; Mazur, Wolchik, & Sandier, 1992). This Children's Relationship Attribution Measure (CRAM) assessed children's attributions in parent-child relationships, examined their association with relationship positivity and behavior displayed toward the parent, determined whether depressive symptoms account...

Author of Tool: 
Fincham, F.D., Beach, S.R., Arias, I., & Brody, G.

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