Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition The China MSM Stigma Scale assesses both impressions of the degree of societal stigmatisation of homosexuals and enacted stigma which is direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviours.
Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. Perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivate people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions are often shaped by stories of discrimination against other HIV-infected individuals (vicarious stigma). The India HIV-Related Stigma Scale was developed from a HIV-related stigma theoretical framework for use in India.
Potentially stressful life events are thought to increase risk for disease when one perceives that the demands these events impose tax or exceed a person’s adaptive capacity (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). In turn, the perception of stress may influence the pathogenesis of physical disease by causing negative affective states (e.g., feelings of anxiety and depression), which then exert direct effects on physiological processes or behavioral patterns that influence disease risk (Cohen, Janicki-Deverts, & Miller, 2007). The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measures psychological...
Evidence of an association between recent stressful life events and a variety of psychological and physical disorders has steadily been increasing. The Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms (CHIPS) is a list of 39 commonn physical symptoms. Items were selected so as to exclude items of an obvious psychological nature. Each item is reated on a 5-point Likert scale for how much that item bothered or distressed the individual during the past two weeks.
A number of authors identify dysfunctional family and interpersonal dynamics as fostering and maintaining codependency. The authors of the scale note this in their definition of codependency, however they also take into account the contribution of characteristics of person. A number of constructs potentially related to codependency were reviewed in creating the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SF CDS)
The Social Network Index (SNI) assesses participation in 12 types of social relationships. These include relationships with a spouse, parents, parents-in-law, children, other close family members, close neighbours, friends, workmates, schoolmates, fellow volunteers, members of groups without religious affiliation, and religious groups. One point is assigned for each type of relationship (possible score of 12) for which respondents indicate that they speak (in person or on the phone) to persons in that relationship at least once every two weeks.
The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) is concerned with ways in which others affect persons' responses to stressful events. The ISEL consists of a list of 40 statements concerning the perceived availability of potential social resources. The items are counterbalanced for desirability; that is half the items are positive statements about social relationships while the other half are negative statements. Items each fall into four 10-item subscales; tangible support, appraisal support, self-esteem support, belonging support.
A number of studies have found that persons whose partners reportedly supported their efforts to quit smoking were more likely to quit smoking and maintain abstinence. Less clear, however, is what kinds of partner behaviours are helpful to quitters and what kinds are harmful. This lack of information about mediating behaviours may be responsible, in part, for the ineffectiveness of interventions designed to facilitate spouse/partner support for quitting smoking. Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ-20) that includes separate subscales assessing positive and negative behaviours provided...
The Global Citizen Scale assists researchers fostering global citizenship identity in educational settings and model the process of identification with a global citizenship identity.
The article in which the Belief in Collective Emotions Scale was published consisted of three studies where participants' belief in collective emotions and related concepts were examined. Participants' belief in the existence of collective emotions positively correlated with measures of in-group identification, collective guilt assignment to an out-group, patriotism, conformity to the in-group, collectivist values, and collective self‐esteem. The belief in collective emotions mediated the relationship between in-group identification and patriotism, and it also mediated the relationship...