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Individual Innovativeness (II)

An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (like an organisation). People and organisations vary a great deal in their "innovativeness." Innovativeness has to do with how early in the process of adoption of new ideas, practices, etc. that the individual or organization is likely to accept a change. The Individual Innovativeness (II) scale was designed to measure individuals' orientations toward change. Research has indicated that this orientation is associated with several communication variables. 

Author of Tool: 
Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O)

Immediacy, particular non-verbal immediacy has received increasing attention from communication scholars. In general, this research indicates that communicators who engage in non-verbal immediate behaviour with others are seen by those others in a more positive way. This Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O) addresses problems of previous scales which measure this. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. E

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S)

The Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S) is based on the immediacy of people in relation to communication. This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as a self-report. Since the purpose was to develop a measure that could be employed either as a self-report or as an other-report, some items from the measure were drawn from previously used measures. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. D.

Attitudes to Surgical Checklist Questionnaire

Surgical checklists have been shown to be effective in reducing mortality rates and improving teamworking when applied in operating theatres.However, despite the benefits of checklist for patient safety, in some cases the practical implementation of the checklist has been found to be less than universal, and to decay over time.Based upon 14 semi-structured interviews, the 27-item questionnaire attitudes to surgical checklist questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire consisted of five subscales: attitudes towards hospital norms on the use of the checklist (five items), the impact of...

Author of Tool: 
O'Connor, Reddin, O'Sullivan, O'Duffy, & Keogh

Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA)

Intercultural communication apprehension (lCA) is conceptualized as the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people of different groups, especially cultural and ethnic and/or racial groups. This Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA) Instrument is presumed to be better than the PRCA24 for this particular communication context. However, it is substantially correlated with the PRCA24. This suggests that interethnic communication apprehension is a sub-category of general communication apprehension.

Author of Tool: 
Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.

Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA)

This measure was developed as a part of a continuing research program investigating the effects of systematic desensitization on communication apprehension. The Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety Scale (PRPSA)  is an excellent measure for research which centers on public speaking anxiety, but is an inadequate measure of the broader communication apprehension construct.

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C.

Shyness Scale (SS)

This Shyness Scale (SS) measure is also referred to as the McCroskey Shyness Scale. It was developed to obtain individual's self-report of their shy behavior. Unlike many shyness scales that have been developed in the field of Psychology, this scale does not confound communication apprehension  with shy behavior. These are two very different constructs and adding items from both provide an uninterpretable score. Communication apprehension relates to fear and/or anxiety about communicating. Willingness to Communicate (WTC) relates to an orientation to initiate communication. Shyness relates...

Author of Tool: 
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P.

SocioCommunicative Style Scale (SCS)

Socio-communicative style refers to others' perception of a communicator's assertiveness and responsiveness behaviors. The SocioCommunicative Style Scale (SCS) is designed to measure the perceptions of these behaviors. Generally, these perceived behaviors are uncorrelated. These are two of the three components of the SCS construct. The third component is variously labeled as "versatility" or "flexibility." This third component is best measured by the "Cognitive Flexibility" scale.

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C.

SocioCommunicative Orientation Scale (SCO)

Sociocommunicative orientation refers to an individual's perception of how assertive and responsive he/she is. This Socio-Communicative Orientation Scale (SCO) is designed to measures these orientations. Generally, these orientations are either totally uncorrelated or only marginally correlated (r < .30). These are two of the three components of the SCO construct. The third component is variously labeled as "versatility" or "flexibility." This third component is best measured by the "Cognitive Flexibility" scale. 

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C.

Situational Communication Apprehension Measure (SCAM)

The Situational Communication Apprehension Measure (SCAM) was developed to provide and instrument which could measure state CA in any context. This is a self-report instrument which can apply to how a person felt in any recent communication event (the closer in time between the event and completion of this instrument, the more valid the measure will be).

Author of Tool: 
Richmond, V. P.

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