Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition The China MSM Stigma Scale assesses both impressions of the degree of societal stigmatisation of homosexuals and enacted stigma which is direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviours.
Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. Perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivate people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions are often shaped by stories of discrimination against other HIV-infected individuals (vicarious stigma). The India HIV-Related Stigma Scale was developed from a HIV-related stigma theoretical framework for use in India.
Evidence of an association between recent stressful life events and a variety of psychological and physical disorders has steadily been increasing. The Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms (CHIPS) is a list of 39 commonn physical symptoms. Items were selected so as to exclude items of an obvious psychological nature. Each item is reated on a 5-point Likert scale for how much that item bothered or distressed the individual during the past two weeks.
A number of authors identify dysfunctional family and interpersonal dynamics as fostering and maintaining codependency. The authors of the scale note this in their definition of codependency, however they also take into account the contribution of characteristics of person. A number of constructs potentially related to codependency were reviewed in creating the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SF CDS)
A number of studies have found that persons whose partners reportedly supported their efforts to quit smoking were more likely to quit smoking and maintain abstinence. Less clear, however, is what kinds of partner behaviours are helpful to quitters and what kinds are harmful. This lack of information about mediating behaviours may be responsible, in part, for the ineffectiveness of interventions designed to facilitate spouse/partner support for quitting smoking. Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ-20) that includes separate subscales assessing positive and negative behaviours provided...
According to betrayal-trauma theory (Freyd, 1994, 1996), experiences involving a betrayal of trust, such as childhood abuse perpetrated by an adult who is quite close to the victim, led to a set of outcomes that differ in kind from traumas that do not involve betrayal. Freyd (1999, 2001) hypothesized that separate clusters of symptoms of post-traumatic distress arise from two distinct dimensions of harm–life threat and social betrayal. Life threat is predicted to lead to symptoms of anxiety and hyper-arousal; social betrayal should lead to symptoms of dissociation, emotional numbness and...
People receiving cancer treatment commonly experience pre-treatment anxiety and report numerous distressing physical and psychosocial sequelae to treatment. Many feel anxious and fearful about the prospect of chemotherapy. High levels of clinically significant anxiety (47%) have been observed in women with early breast cancer about to commence adjuvant chemotherapy. Common physical sequelae to chemotherapy include nausea, fatigue, hair loss and predisposition to infection, while non-physical sequelae include treatment related anxiety, needle phobias and concerns about...
Smoking is one of the most significant and preventable risk factors for cardiovascular and lung diseases. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in the secondary prevention of smoking. The Smoking Cessation by General Practitioners (SmoCess-GP) was developed to assess the extent of smoking cessation activities by GP’s and to evaluate its effectiveness.
When seeking to assist those companies that have not yet established systematic worksite health promotion (WHP), the problem quickly encountered is that not all companies possess the same capacity for engaging in Worksite Health Promotion (WHP). Each company requires support tailored to their specific level of capacity. To determine each company’s particular situation in terms of their capacity to engage in WHP, the Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI) was developed.
Safer sex is first defined for participants as any combination of the following behavioral strategies:
A) Abstinence from vaginal and anal intercourse.
B) Condom Use with all vaginal and anal sexual partners.
C) Sexually exclusive relationship with only one partner in the past year who has tested negative for HIV antibodies.
Participants are then instructed to rate their level of confidence in having safer sex and temptation to have unprotected sex on a five-point Likert...