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Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS)

The Drive for Muscularity (DM) represents an individual's perception that he or she is not muscular enough and that bulk should be added to his or her body frame, in the form of muscle mass (irrespective of a person's percentage of actual muscle mass or body fat). DM is more prevalent in men, where past research has shown that a muscular mesomorphic body shape is considered to be more desirable than any other. However, recent research has shown that women also tend to show fairly high levels of DM, suggesting that this concept may be important for them too (but perhaps in different ways...

Author of Tool: 
McCreary, D. R.

Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.  That initial work has stimulated many others to conduct their own research, as is evident...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Emotions help us respond adaptively to environmental challenges and opportunities. Unlike other biologically based response tendencies, such as reflexes, however, emotions only incline us to act in certain ways; they do not compel us to do so. This means that we may deny expression to some emotional impulses while freely expressing others. Striking individual differences in ex-pressivity suggest that people differ in their response tendencies and in how they express these impulses as they arise. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three different facets of emotional...

Author of Tool: 
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P.

The Diet Self Efficacy Scale (DIET-SE)

The Diet Self -Efficacy Scale DIET-SE consists of three factors. The first factor is called high caloric food temptations (HCF). It consists of four items describing situations in which the exposure to tempting high caloric food (e.g., cake or ice cream) might make it difficult to resist eating it. The second is called social and internal factors (SIF). It consists of four items describing situations in which social or internal factors, such as being with friends or feeling tired, might make it difficult to resist eating. The third factor is called negative emotional events (NEE). It...

Author of Tool: 
Knäuper, B.

The SMU Health Questionnaire (SMUHQ)

The SMU Health Questionnaire (SMU-HQ) to assess a broader range of health problems than are covered in the PILL. Its 63 items include symptoms  and complaints (e.g., abdominal or stomach pain, sore throat), minor illnesses (e.g., cold or flu, appendicitis), and more serious and chronic  health problems (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, cancer). Subjects check any problem they have experienced during the past year.  In order to distinguish between symptom and major health items, we subjected the SMU-HQ items to a principal factor analysis (squared multiple correlations in the diagonal) in a...

Author of Tool: 
Watson, D and Pennebaker, J. W.

Questionnaires from a Typical Writing Study

These questionnaires ask a series of questions relating to college experience. In the Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990) study, participants were told  "During today's session, I want you to let go and write about your very deepest thoughts and feelings about coming to college. College, as you know, is a major transition. In your writing, you might want to write about your emotions and thoughts about leaving your friends or your parents, about issues of adjusting to the various aspects of college such as roommates, classes, or thoughts about your future, or even about...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W

The Emotional Self- Disclosure Scale (ESDS)

People vary in how willingly and how often they discuss their emotional experiences with others. Research indicates that men and women sometimes diverge in their disclosure tendencies, usually in response to unique characteristics associated with the topic and recipient of the disclosure.The Emotional Self-Disclosure Survey (ESDS) consists of 40 topics concerned with the types of feelings and emotions that people experience at one time or another in their life. This survey is concened with the extent to which you have discussed these feelings and emotions with your counselor.

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S.

The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS)

The research literature on self-disclosure is not consistent with gender stereotypes. While some studies demonstrate that women are more self-revealing than men, some find the opposite to be the case. The Masculine and Feminine Self-Disclosure Scale (MFSDS) has four separate subscales: two masculine scales assess the tendency to discuss agentic, instrumental traits and behaviors; and two feminine scales measure the tendency to self-disclose about communal, expressive traits and behaviors. 

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr.

The Health Orientation Scale (HOS)

In recent years a number of investigators have begun to examine the impact of people's personality tendencies on their physical health. The Health Orientation Scale (HOS) is an objective self-report measure of several health-related personality features: private health consciousness, defined as the tendency to be highly aware of and to think about one's physical health-fitness; health image concern, defined as the tendency to be highly aware of the external, observable impression that one's physical health makes on others; health anxiety, defined as the tendency to be anxious and nervous...

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Johnson, G., Lloyd, P. J., & Hoover, W.

Costs and Benefits of Friendship

Friends do not share copies of our genes, nor do we generally reproduce with our friends. Around the world, however, people form friendships that last for days, years, and even a lifetime. One of the complexities of friendship is that some characteristics of friendship are perceived as both beneficial and costly. The friendship literature, for example, is inconsistent on the role of sexuality in opposite-sex friendship. More than half of men and some women report sexual attraction to their friends (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and both sexes experience ambiguity about the sexual boundaries...

Author of Tool: 
Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M.

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