The College Alcohol Problems Scale - Revised (CAPS-r) was developed from the College Alcohol Problems Scale (CAPS). CAPS-r is a short reliable and valid measure of alcohol-related problems is needed to enable low-cost data collection on college campuses across the nation, as well as to facilitate program evaluation and routine epidemiological surveillance and monitoring.
Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition The China MSM Stigma Scale assesses both impressions of the degree of societal stigmatisation of homosexuals and enacted stigma which is direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviours.
Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. Perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivate people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions are often shaped by stories of discrimination against other HIV-infected individuals (vicarious stigma). The India HIV-Related Stigma Scale was developed from a HIV-related stigma theoretical framework for use in India.
A number of authors identify dysfunctional family and interpersonal dynamics as fostering and maintaining codependency. The authors of the scale note this in their definition of codependency, however they also take into account the contribution of characteristics of person. A number of constructs potentially related to codependency were reviewed in creating the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SF CDS)
According to betrayal-trauma theory (Freyd, 1994, 1996), experiences involving a betrayal of trust, such as childhood abuse perpetrated by an adult who is quite close to the victim, led to a set of outcomes that differ in kind from traumas that do not involve betrayal. Freyd (1999, 2001) hypothesized that separate clusters of symptoms of post-traumatic distress arise from two distinct dimensions of harm–life threat and social betrayal. Life threat is predicted to lead to symptoms of anxiety and hyper-arousal; social betrayal should lead to symptoms of dissociation, emotional numbness and...
Many people are fearful and/or anxious about communicating with their physician. It is believed that this fear/anxiety is in some part a function of the way the physician communicates with the patient. This Fear of Physician (FOP) instrument was developed to measure that feeling. The FOP is an extension of the 5-item state anxiety measure developed by Spielberger (1966).
The Richmond Humor Assessment Instrument (RHAI) is a 16-item self-report measure that uses a 5-point Likert format. The instrument was developed by Richmond (1999) to measure an individual's predisposition to reenact humour messages during an interaction. Researchers believe that teaching people to be humerous can help with stress and family problems, make them more popular, and they will have improved self-concepts.
The study of various general orientations toward communication has held an important place in communication research for over a half-century. This research has been conducted under a wide variety of conceptualizations. These have included stage fright, speech anxiety, communication apprehension, shyness, reticence, unwillingness to communicate, willingness to communicate, talkativeness, verbal activity, vocal activity, and a number of others. Although these are all related constructs, there are important distinctions among them. One group of constructs relates to anxiety or apprehension...
The Tolerance For Disagreement (TFD) Scale is designed to measure the degree to which an individual can tolerate other people disagreeing with what the individual believes to be true. This conceptualization is similar to that of argumentativeness. People with high argumentativeness are likely to be able to deal with more disagreement than those people who are low in argumentativeness. It is believed that conflict in interpersonal communication is in large part (in conjunction with the level of liking between the people) a function of the tolerance of disagreement of the interactants.
Measurement of source credibility has been a concern of the Communication discipline for over 40 years. The first multidimensional measure appeared in the Communication literature in 1966 (McCroskey, J .C., Scales for the measurement of ethos, Speech Monographs, 33, 65-72) and provided scales measuring competence and trustworthiness. Many other studies were conducted over the next 30 years. This Source Credibility Measure is the most complete measure and includes scales for three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill/caring. These are measures of constructs which are...