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Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.  That initial work has stimulated many others to conduct their own research, as is evident...

Author of Tool: 
Paulhus, D. L

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Emotions help us respond adaptively to environmental challenges and opportunities. Unlike other biologically based response tendencies, such as reflexes, however, emotions only incline us to act in certain ways; they do not compel us to do so. This means that we may deny expression to some emotional impulses while freely expressing others. Striking individual differences in ex-pressivity suggest that people differ in their response tendencies and in how they express these impulses as they arise. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three different facets of emotional...

Author of Tool: 
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P.

Positive Event (uplift) Scale for Middle Aged Adults (frequency and severity)

In the 1980s, using the cognitive transactual model of stress, Lazarus and colleagues highlighted daily events (hassles) as better predictors of negative psychological and somatic outcomes than major life events (Kanner et al., 1981). Lazarus’s cognitive appraisal (transactual) theory suggests that individuals cognitively evaluate or appraise environmental events in relation to their own person-related characteristics, thereby determining the type and quality of the emotional response (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984; Lazarus, 1991, 1999). While day-to-day negative events, or hassles, have...

Author of Tool: 
Mayberry, D. J.

Positive Event (uplift) Scale for University Students

Up until the 1980’s, event measurement was characterised by important life events such as marriages, accidents and deaths (e.g., Holmes and Rahe, 1967). At that time, Lazarus and colleagues highlighted daily events (hassles) as better predictors of negative psychological and somatic outcomes than major life events (Kanner et al., 1981). Daily events are theoretically embedded within the cognitive transactual model of stress. This theory suggests that individual’s cognitively evaluate or appraise environmental events in relation to their own person-related characteristics, otherwise known...

Author of Tool: 
Mayberry, D. J.

Negative Event (hassle) Scale for University Students

Over the years hassle and uplift measurement has received considerable criticism. It has been suggested that the hassle scales of Kanner and Delongis are perhaps flawed because they confound frequency of event occurrence and severity information in each item Hassle items on the Kanner scale are also thought contaminated with outcome measures of stress.4 Others have suggested that items on these scales are not representative of a broad range of population subgroups (being designed for a middle-aged population). In addition, the Kanner hassle scale asks subject’s to rate the severity of the...

Author of Tool: 
Maybery, D. J.

Negative Event (hassle) Scale for Middle Aged Adults (frequency and severity)

Maybery and colleagues initially highlighted face and content validity problems with hassle measurement generally and then demonstrated predictive validity improvements to the Lazarus hassle scale by adding a substantial range of interpersonal events (Maybery & Graham, 2001). In developing a new hassle measure for University students, a coherent, valid, and reliable component subscale structure was highlighted that included a number of interpersonal subscales (Maybery, 2003a). Further research employing that measure demonstrated the predictive utility of global versus molecular...

Author of Tool: 
Maybery, D. J.

Questionnaires from a Typical Writing Study

These questionnaires ask a series of questions relating to college experience. In the Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990) study, participants were told  "During today's session, I want you to let go and write about your very deepest thoughts and feelings about coming to college. College, as you know, is a major transition. In your writing, you might want to write about your emotions and thoughts about leaving your friends or your parents, about issues of adjusting to the various aspects of college such as roommates, classes, or thoughts about your future, or even about...

Author of Tool: 
Pennebaker, J.W

Life Engagement Test (LET)

Recent models of behavioral self-regulation (Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1990, 1998), themselves descendents of generations of expectancyvalue models of motivation (Atkinson, 1964; Vroom, 1964; Feather, 1982; Shah and Higgins, 1997), suggest that two elements are important in creating behavior: (a) the ability to identify goals that are valued and (b) the perception that those goals are attainable. Of these two elements, it is the value dimension that is of interest here. Valued goals are important because they provide a purpose for living. Valued goals also provide the mechanism by which...

Author of Tool: 
Scheier, M. F., Wrosch, C., Baum, A., Cohen, S., Martire, L. M., Matthews, K. A., Schulz, R., & Zdaniuk, B.

Goal Adjustment Scale--(GAS)

People cannot always attain their goals. For example, sociostructural, biological, and normative factors can reduce the opportunities for goal attainment as people advance in age (Heckhausen & Schulz, 1995). Biologically and socially determined rules govern when people should retire, and there are implicit age norms guiding important life transitions (Baltes, Cornelius, & Nesselroade, 1979; Neugarten, 1969). The sequential nature of development also requires individuals of all ages to go through different life stages (Havighurst, 1973), frequently forcing them to leave valued...

Author of Tool: 
Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., Miller, G. E., Schulz, R., & Carver, C. S.

The Emotional Self- Disclosure Scale (ESDS)

People vary in how willingly and how often they discuss their emotional experiences with others. Research indicates that men and women sometimes diverge in their disclosure tendencies, usually in response to unique characteristics associated with the topic and recipient of the disclosure.The Emotional Self-Disclosure Survey (ESDS) consists of 40 topics concerned with the types of feelings and emotions that people experience at one time or another in their life. This survey is concened with the extent to which you have discussed these feelings and emotions with your counselor.

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S.

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