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SECope: Coping with HIV Treatment Side Effects

Side effects from HIV treatments impact quality of life (QOL) and adherence to care, and influence decisions about health care. The SECope: Coping with HIV Treatment Side Effects Scale deals with the issue of the lack of data on how people deal with and manage the adverse effects of medication.    For example, how one copes with the undesirable effects of ART may be similar to how one deals with the symptoms of a chronic disease. There are fundamental differences, however, between coping with an ongoing disease and side effects from a treatment regimen. The individual taking medications,...

Author of Tool: 
Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Modified Schedule of Sexist Events (SSE-LM)

The Modified Version of Sexual Events (SSE-LM) is a modified version of the Schedule of Sexual Events-Lifetime (SSE, Klonoff & Landrine, 1995 ), which additionally applies to women's HIV risk behaviours.

Author of Tool: 
Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL)

The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) has been used heavily as a measure of the life satisfaction component of subjective well-being. Scores on the SWLS have been shown to correlate with measures of mental health, and be predictive of future behaviours such as suicide attempts. In the area of health psychology, the SWLS has been used to measure the subjective quality of life of people experiencing serious health concerns.

Author of Tool: 
Pavot, W., & Diener, E.

Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)

The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) produces a score for positive feelings (6 items), a score for negative feelings (6 items), and the two can be combined to create a balance score. This 12-item brief scale has a number of desirable features compared to earlier measures of positive and negative emotions. In particular, the scale assesses with a few items a broad range of negative and positive experiences and feelings, not just those of a certain type, and is based on the amount of time the feelings were experienced during the past four weeks. The scale converges well with...

Author of Tool: 
Diener, Ed.

Flourishing Scale (FS)

The Flourishing Scale (FS) is a measure of psychosocial flourishing, based on recent theories of psychological and social well-being. The FS is designed to measure social-psychological prosperity, to complement existing measures of subjective well-being. A number of psychological theories of human flourishing have been developed, and the authors devised a brief measure to capture major aspects of this type of “prosperity.” Ryff (1989; Ryff & Singer, 1998) and Ryan and Deci (2000), based on earlier humanistic psychology theories, suggest that there are several universal human...

Author of Tool: 
Diener. Ed., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R.

HIV & Safer Sex: Self Efficacy Scale

Safer sex is first defined for participants as any combination of the following behavioral strategies:

A) Abstinence from vaginal and anal intercourse.

B) Condom Use with all vaginal and anal sexual partners.

C) Sexually exclusive relationship with only one partner in the past year who has tested negative for HIV antibodies.

Participants are then instructed to rate their level of confidence in having safer sex and temptation to have unprotected sex on a five-point Likert...

Author of Tool: 
Redding, C. & Rossi, J

Considerations of Future Consequences (CFC Scale)

Given their intertemporal nature, one factor that predicts health behaviors is an individual’s CFC (i.e., the extent to which people consider the potential distant outcomes of their current behaviors and are influenced by those potential outcomes; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994).    The Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) is a 12- item scale using 5- point ratings.  (1 = extremely uncharacteristic to 5 = extremely characteristic). An example of an item is "I consider how things might be in the future, and try to influence those things with my...

Author of Tool: 
Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S

General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)

The construct of Perceived Self-Efficacy reflects an optimistic self-belief (Schwarzer, 1992). This is the belief that one can perform a novel or difficult tasks, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning. Perceived self-efficacy facilitates goal-setting, effort investment, persistence in face of barriers and recovery from setbacks. It can be regarded as a positive resistance resource factor. Ten items from the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) are designed to tap this construct. Each item refers to successful coping and implies an internal-stable attribution of...

Author of Tool: 
Ralf Schwarzer & Matthias Jerusalem

Two Factor Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14)

The consideration of future consequences scale was developed by Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger & Edwards (1994). The original items on the scale are items 1-12. Most research using the CFC scale has treated it as a uni-dimensional construct. Internal reliability for the overall, 12-item scale is high (typically ranging from .80 to .85) with a five-week temporal stability of .72 (Strathman et al., 1994) (for a recent review of the CFC literature, see Joireman, Strathman, & Balliet, 2006). While the internal reliability of the overall scale is quite high, recent research suggests the...

Author of Tool: 
Jeff Joireman, Monte J. Shaffer, Daniel Balliet and Alan Strathman

Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS)

The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Schwarzer & Schulz, 2000) were developed based on theoretical considerations and reviews of established measurement instruments for social support.
All items were discussed by an expert panel and partly revised after a pilot study with cancer patients. Items of the received/provided support subscales referring to unfavorable support behavior of the partner were omitted from our study after patients expressed rejection of those statements.

The answering format is the same for all subscales: Patients rate their agreement with the...

Author of Tool: 
Ralf Schwarzer & Ute Schulz

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