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The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule

In recent research, two broad, general factors—typically labeled Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA)—have emerged reliably as the dominant dimensions of emotional experience. These factors have been identified in both intraand interindividual analyses, and they emerge consistently across diverse descriptor sets, time frames, response formats, languages, and cultures. The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule , is a 60-item, expanded version of the PANAS. In addition to the two original higher order scales, the PANAS-X measures 11 specific affects: Fear,...

Author of Tool: 
Watson, D.

Preference for Solitude Scale

Past research suggests that solitude can have either a positive or a negative impact on a person′s well-being. How time away from others affects people may depend on the person′s general preference for solitude.  Most research relates wellbeing to the amount of time spent alone, but not about the link between wellbeing an a person's preference for being alone. The Preference for Solitude Scale addresses this.

Author of Tool: 
Burger, Jerry.

General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)

The construct of Perceived Self-Efficacy reflects an optimistic self-belief (Schwarzer, 1992). This is the belief that one can perform a novel or difficult tasks, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning. Perceived self-efficacy facilitates goal-setting, effort investment, persistence in face of barriers and recovery from setbacks. It can be regarded as a positive resistance resource factor. Ten items from the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) are designed to tap this construct. Each item refers to successful coping and implies an internal-stable attribution of...

Author of Tool: 
Ralf Schwarzer & Matthias Jerusalem

Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS)

The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Schwarzer & Schulz, 2000) were developed based on theoretical considerations and reviews of established measurement instruments for social support.
All items were discussed by an expert panel and partly revised after a pilot study with cancer patients. Items of the received/provided support subscales referring to unfavorable support behavior of the partner were omitted from our study after patients expressed rejection of those statements.

The answering format is the same for all subscales: Patients rate their agreement with the...

Author of Tool: 
Ralf Schwarzer & Ute Schulz

Attitudes Toward Self (ATS)

The Attitudes Toward Self (ATS) Instrument measures three constructs: holding of overly high standards; the tendency to be self-critical at any failure to perform well; and the tendency to generalize from a single failure to the broader sense of self-worth. Very consistently, only generalization has uniquely related to depression (see Carver et al. 1988 reference below). Evidence that generalization is a prospective predictor of depression in interaction with adverse events has also been found. More recently, it has been found that generalization relates to depression but not mania,...

Author of Tool: 
Carver, C. S.

The Depressive Life Experiences Scale (DLES)

 During recent years psychologists have begun to investigate the variety of stressful life events that trigger distress. The Depressive Life Experiences Scale (DLES) is an objective self-report instrument designed to assess six depressogenic life experiences: (1) social exits, (2) interpersonal disharmony, (3) personal inertia, (4) personal frustrations, (5) personal inadequacies, and (6) others' misfortunes. The Depressive Life Experiences Scale was designed to assess the depressive life experiences found in a study by Snell, McDonald, and Koch (1989). Snell et al. (1989) asked people to...

Author of Tool: 
Snell, W. E., Jr., Belk, S. S., & Hawkins, R. C. II

The Big Three Perfectionism Scale: A new measure of perfectionism

The Big Three Perfectionism Scale (BTPS) assesses three higher-order global factors (rigid perfectionism, self-critical perfectionism, narcissistic perfectionism) via 10 lower-order perfectionism facets (self-oriented perfectionism, self-worth contingencies, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, self-criticism, socially prescribed perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, hypercriticism, grandiosity, entitlement).Following from the results of Smith, Saklofske, Stoeber, & Sherry (in press), the BTPS appears to be a promising new instrument for the multidimensional assessment...

Author of Tool: 
Martin M. Smith

Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale

People often think about their relationship after it ends. Previously, most studies of romantic relationship breakups assumed that people only think about negative memories from their ex-relationship. The authors proposed that individuals also think about positive memories after a breakup, and that thinking about positive memories can also make it difficult to move on from a breakup. They created the PANERT, a 12-item measure, to examine this.

In the scale development paper, results indicated that people think about positive memories and negative memories after a breakup, and that...

Author of Tool: 
Brenner, R.E. and Vogel, D.L.

Fear of Happiness Scale

Author of Tool: 
Mohsen Joshanloo

Fragility of Happiness Scale

Author of Tool: 
Mohsen Joshanloo