The negative and positive affect scale (NAPAS)

Author of Tool: 

Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M.

Key references: 

Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: a developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(5), 1333-1349.

Joshanloo, M. (2017). Factor structure and criterion validity of original and short versions of the Negative and Positive Affect Scale (NAPAS). Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 233-237.

Joshanloo, M. (2016). Factor structure of subjective well-being in Iran. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(4), 435-443.

Joshanloo, M., & Bakhshi, A. (in press). The factor structure and measurement invariance of positive and negative affect across gender and cultural groups: a study in Iran and the USA. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

Primary use / Purpose: 

To measure negative and positive affect


The original scale has 12 items, the shortened version has 10 items. The scale has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity (see the key references).



Digital Object Identifier (DOI):