The negative and positive affect scale (NAPAS)

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Author of Tool: 

Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M.

Key references: 

Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: a developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(5), 1333-1349.

Joshanloo, M. (2017). Factor structure and criterion validity of original and short versions of the Negative and Positive Affect Scale (NAPAS). Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 233-237.

Joshanloo, M. (2016). Factor structure of subjective well-being in Iran. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(4), 435-443.

Joshanloo, M., & Bakhshi, A. (in press). The factor structure and measurement invariance of positive and negative affect across gender and cultural groups: a study in Iran and the USA. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

Primary use / Purpose: 

To measure negative and positive affect


The original scale has 12 items, the shortened version has 10 items. The scale has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity (see the key references).



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