Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA)


Author of Tool: 

Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.

Key references: 

Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of intercultural and interethnic communication apprehension. Communication Research Reports, 14, 385-398.

Primary use / Purpose: 

This measure was developed to address communication apprehension in the interethnic context.


Intercultural communication apprehension (lCA) is conceptualized as the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people of different groups, especially cultural and ethnic and/or racial groups. This Personal Report of Interethnic Communication Apprehension (PRECA) Instrument is presumed to be better than the PRCA24 for this particular communication context. However, it is substantially correlated with the PRCA24. This suggests that interethnic communication apprehension is a sub-category of general communication apprehension.


Alpha reliability estimates should be expected to be above 0.9 when completed by native English speakers, although they may be lower when this instrument is translated into another language. Factor analysis confirmed the unidimensional factor structure of both scales. Responses to the predictor items indicate that both scales possess criterion related validity.



PDF iconPRECA scale and instructions

Web link to tool:

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


Welcome to the Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Sciences (MIDSS). The site is designed to be a repository for instruments that are used to collect data from across the social sciences. Please use the site to discover instruments you can use in you own research.