The Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-For Veterans (POQ-VA)


Author of Tool: 

Clark, M. E. & Gironda, R. J. (adapted for non-va use by Rachal, K. C.)

Key references: 

Clark, M. E., Gironda, R. J., & Young, R. W. (2003). Development and Validation of the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire- VA. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40(5), 381-396.

Primary use / Purpose: 

The Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-For Veterans (POQ-VA) is a 45-item inventory. The 19 primary pain items are rated on a 11point (0-10) Likert-type scale. The remaining items provide additional information relating to patient history, opioid use, treatment satisfaction, and other demographics. The inventory has three forms: intake, discharge, and follow up. The 19 primary pain items remain the same in each form of the questionnaire, but the remaining items vary across each version. Its original purpose was to function as a multi-dimensional measure of pain in veterans to keep pace with the emergence of the biopsychosocial model of pain. It has proven to be a reliable, valid, and robust measure of the diverse cluster of symptoms associated with pain.


The Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-For Veterans (POQ-VA) was designed to address the complex, multi-dimensional nature of pain. At the time the inventory was being developed, such a scale was deemed necessary by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in order that effective treatment could be developed. It is not possible to develop these treatments unless an accurate and reliable method of assessing the underlying symptoms exists. For this reason, the POQ-VA was developed and validated over a period of years. It is useful in both clinical and research settings.


The psychometric properties of the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-For Veterans (POQ-VA) are discussed in Clark, Gironda, & Young (2003).



PDF iconPOQ_VA IntakePDF iconPOQ-VA DischargePDF iconPOQ-VA Follow UpPDF iconIntake Scoring KeyPDF iconDischarge Scoring KeyPDF iconFollow Up Scoring Key

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


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