Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. E. (2003). Development of the Nonverbal Immediacy Scale (NIS): Measures of self- and other-perceived nonverbal immediacy. Communication Quarterly, 51, 502-515
Primary use / Purpose:
Immediacy, particular non-verbal immediacy has received increasing attention from communication scholars. In general, this research indicates that communicators who engage in non-verbal immediate behaviour with others are seen by those others in a more positive way. This Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report (NIS-O) addresses problems of previous scales which measure this.
Alpha reliability estimates around .90 should be expected. This measure also has more face validity than previous instruments because it has more diverse items. Its predictive validity was also found to be good..