Ewing, R., Handy, S., Brownson, R. C., Clemente, O., & Winston, E. (2006). Identifying and measuring urban design qualities related to walkability. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3(July), 223-239.
Ewing, R., & Handy, S. (2009). Measuring the unmeasurable: Urban design qualities related to walkability. Journal of Urban Design, 14(1), 65-84.
Primary use / Purpose:
An operational definitions and measurement protocols for six intangible qualities of the urban environment, specifically: imageability, visual enclosure, human scale, transparency, complexity, and tidiness; was developed in order to study relationships between the built environment and walking behaviour.
Validity and reliability of the six intangible qualities has been assessed (Ewing, Handy, Brownson, Clemente, & Winston, 2006).
A field survey instrument and training manual is available to help researchers understand relationships between the built environment and walking behaviour.