Individual Innovativeness (II)

Author of Tool: 

Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D

Key references: 

Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D. (1977). Scales for the measurement of innovativeness. Human Communication Research, 4, 58-65.

Primary use / Purpose: 

Measures individuals orientation towards innovation


An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (like an organisation). People and organisations vary a great deal in their “innovativeness.” Innovativeness has to do with how early in the process of adoption of new ideas, practices, etc. that the individual or organization is likely to accept a change. The Individual Innovativeness (II) scale was designed to measure individuals’ orientations toward change. Research has indicated that this orientation is associated with several communication variables. 


The II instrument has been found to be highly reliable and the predictive validity is good.


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