Generalised Attitude Measure (GAM)


Author of Tool: 

McCroskey, J. C.

Key references: 

McCroskey, J. C. (1966).Experimental studies of the effects of ethos and evidence in persuasive communication. Unpublished doctoral dissertation .Pennsylvania State University.

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P.(1989).Bipolar scales. In P. Emmert & L. L. Barker (Eds.), Measurement of Communication Behavior (pp. 154-167).New York: Longman.

McCroskey, J. C., &  Richmond, V. P.(1996).Fundamentals of human communication: An interpersonal perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Primary use / Purpose: 

This is a measure which can be used for any attitude topic-an evaluation of any general idea.


The Generalised Attitude Measure (GAM) has been used to record attitudes in a wide range of communication research studies.  It was designed to be used across context topics concerning a wide variety of issues rather than a single topic.


The measure is highly reliable with alpha estimates above .90, and has strong face, concurrent and predictive validity. For full psychometric information see McCroskey (2006)


PDF iconGeneralised Attitude Measure

Web link to tool:

Other Information: 

The example employs the topic of “Capital Punishment.” To use for any other topic, simply substitute the other topic. This measure is not used for “belief” concepts–such as “My teacher is an excellent professor.” For these types of beliefs, see the Generalized Belief Scale. An alpha in the range of .85 to .95 should be expected under most circumstances.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


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