Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ)

By

Author of Tool: 

Berend Terluin

Key references: 

Terluin B, Van Rhenen W, Schaufeli WB, De Haan M. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): measuring distress and other mental health problems in a working population. Work and Stress 2004; 18(3): 187-207.
Terluin B, Van Marwijk HWJ, Adèr HJ, De Vet HCW, Penninx BWJH, Hermens MLM, Van Boeijen CA, Van Balkom AJLM, Van der Klink JJL, Stalman WAB. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. BMC Psychiatry 2006; 6:34.
Terluin B, Brouwers EPM, van Marwijk HWJ, Verhaak PFM, van der Horst HE. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). BMC Fam Pract 2009; 10:58.

Primary use / Purpose: 

The 4DSQ is a self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. It is mainly used in primary care. The 4DSQ helps to differentiate between normal distress and psychiatric disorder.

Background: 

Many health care problems in primary care are stress-related (distress) and do not represent true psychiatric disorder (irrespective of whether DSM-IV criteria for depressive or anxiety disorders are fulfilled). Indiscriminate application of DSM-IV criteria in the primary care setting produces many false positive diagnoses confusing patients and misleading professionals.
In health care practice the 4DSQ can be used to:
– help patients acknowledge mental health issues when presenting with physical complaints,
– assess the overall severity of the mental health problems,
– detect depressive and anxiety disorders severe enough to require specific treatment (antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy),
– monitor patients’ progress under treatment.

Psychometrics: 

The 4DSQ has been extensively tested for reliability and validity. Reliability is high (coefficients generally >.80). Factorial, critirion and concurrant validity has been confirmed.

Keywords: 

Files: 

PDF iconEnglish version 4DSQPDF iconScorings instructions for the 4DSQ

Web link to tool: 

Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ)

Other Information: 

The 4DSQ is free for non-commercial use. Available language versions: English, Dutch, French, German, Polish, Turkish

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 

https://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.167

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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