Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II)

Author of Tool: 

Todd B. Kashdan, Ph.D., Matt Gallagher, Ph.D. Paul Silvia, Ph.D.

Key references: 

1. Kashdan, T.B., Gallagher, M.W., Silvia, P.J., Winterstein, B.P., Breen, W.E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M.F. (2009). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and initial psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.
2. Kashdan, T.B., McKnight, P.E., Fincham, F.D., & Rose, P. (2011). When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations. Journal of Personality, 79, 1369-1401.
3. Kashdan, T.B., Dewall, C.N., Pond, R.S., Silvia, P.J., Lambert, N.M., Fincham, F.D., Savostyanova, A.A., & Keller, P.S. (in press). Curiosity protects against interpersonal aggression: Cross-sectional, daily process, and behavioral evidence. Journal of Personality.

Primary use / Purpose: 

The CEI-II is a self-report instrument assessing individual differences in the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging experiences and information.


The CEI-II is a 10-item scale with two factors: the motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; five items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; five items).. The first factor, Exploration, refers to appetitive strivings for novel and challenging information and experiences. The second factor, Absorption, refers to the propensity to be deeply engaged in activities. Respondents rate items using a 7-point Likert-type scale.


The CEI-II has good internal reliability, and shows moderately large positive relationships with intrinsic motivation, reward sensitivity, openness to experience, and subjective vitality. Moreover, the CEI-II has shown incremental validity over and above the overlapping constructs of positive affect and reward sensitivity. The CEI-II takes less than 2 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit. A state version of the CEI-II has also been validated, demonstrating sensitivity to change.



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