Considerations of Future Consequences (CFC Scale)

Author of Tool: 

Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S

Key references: 

Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of    behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(4), 742-752. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.66.4.742

Cauffman, E. & Steinberg, L. (2000). (Im)maturity of judgement in adolescence: why adolescents may be less culpable than adults. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 18(6), 741-760. doi: 10.1002/bsl.416

Joireman, J., Sprott, D. E. & Spangenberg, E. R. (2005). Fiscal responsibility and the consideration of future consequences. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(6), 1159-1168. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.002

Sheina, O. & Martin, H. (2006). Temporal framing and the decision to take part in type 2 diabetes screening: effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on persuasion. Health Psychology, 25(4), 537-548. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.25.4.537

Howlett, E., Kees, J. & Kemp, E. (2008). The role of self-regulation, future orientation, and financial knowledge in long-term financial decisions. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 42(2), 223-242. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6606.2008.00106.x

Toepoel, V. (2010). Is consideration of future consequences a changeable construct? [Article]. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(8), 951-956. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.029

Primary use / Purpose: 

Designed to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences

Background: 

Given their intertemporal nature, one factor that predicts health behaviors is an individual’s CFC (i.e., the extent to which people consider the potential distant outcomes of their current behaviors and are influenced by those potential outcomes; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994).    The Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) is a 12- item scale using 5- point ratings.  (1 = extremely uncharacteristic to 5 = extremely characteristic). An example of an item is "I consider how things might be in the future, and try to influence those things with my day-to-day behaviour."

Psychometrics: 

For psychometrics information see: Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of    behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(4), 742-752.

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