China MSM Stigma Scale

Author of Tool: 

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Key references: 

Neilands TB, Steward WT, Choi K-H. Assessment of Stigma towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men. Arch Sex Behav. 2008 Oct;37(5):838-44.

Primary use / Purpose: 

Assessment of stigma towards homosexuality in China.


Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition The China MSM Stigma Scale  assesses both impressions of the degree of societal stigmatisation of homosexuals and enacted stigma which is direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviours. 


For psychometric information see: Steward WT, Herek GM, Ramakrishna J, Bharat S, Chandy S, Wrubel J, Ekstrand ML. HIV-related stigma: Adapting a theoretical framework for use in India. Social Science & Medicine 67 (2008) 1225–1235.


Digital Object Identifier (DOI):