Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS)


Author of Tool: 

Carey MP, Jorgensen RS, Weinstock RS, Sprafkin RP, Lantinga LJ, Carnrike CL Jr, Baker MT, Meisler AW

Key references: 

Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W. (1991). Reliability and validity of the appraisal of diabetes scale. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 43-51.

Garratt, A.M., L. Schmidt, and R. Fitzpatrick (2002) Patient-assessed health outcome measures for diabetes: a structured review. Diabetic Med., 19, 1-11.

Trief, P.M., W. Grant, K. Elbert, and R.S. Weinstock (1998) Family environment, glycemic control, and the psychosocial adaptation of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 21, 241-245.

Trief, P.M., C. Aquilino, K. Paradies, and R.S. Weinstock (1999) Impact of the work environment on glycemic control and adaptation to diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 569-574.

Primary use / Purpose: 

The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) is a 7-item self-report scale assessing the individual’s appraisal of his or her diabetes. Respondents rate each statement on a 5 point Likert scale. The scale’s author state that the ADS can be incisive as a relatively quick (5 minute) screening tool to examine a patient’s adjustment to diabetes or risk for noncompliance with a care regimen. The test is easily administered (written or oral form) and is simple to score and interpret. The smaller the total score, the more positive the appraisal strategy. Thus, lower scores are better.


The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) was developed and tested with 200 male subjects, two thirds of whom were taking insulin treatment with an mean age of 58 years. All subjects provided blood for routine monitoring of HbA1c, half the subjects completed the ADS as well as five other self-report measures, and the other half completed the ADS on three time points over the course of one week. No significant difference was observed between ADS scores for insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent subjects.
The ADS has been used in studies parsing the effects of family environment (Trief et al. 1998) and work environment (Trief et al. 1999) on glycemic control and psychosocial adaptation in adults with diabetes.


The psychometric properties of the ADS are examined in Carey et al. (1991).




Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


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