Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES)


Author of Tool: 

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Key references: 

Johnson MO, Neilands TB, Dilworth SE, Morin SF, Remien RH, Chesney MA. The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES). J Behav Med. 2007 Jun 23.. J Behav Med. 2007 Jun 23. 

Primary use / Purpose: 

This 12-item scale assessed patient confidence to carry out important treatment-related behaviors related to adhering to treatment plans, including medication regimen adherence and following plans for nutrition, exercise, etc, in the face of barriers.


Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. The Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), which was designed to measure self-efficacy for adherence to HIV treatment plans, including but not limited to taking HIV medications. For the purposes of this scale, treatment plans can include anything the individual does to take care of hi/her HIV disease, including taking antiretroviral therapy, nutrition, exercise, etc. The original instrument was developed for use in clinical trials of behavioral interventions related to stress and coping and treatment adherence.  


Factor analyses support subscales measuring Adherence Integration (eigenvalue = 6.12) and Adherence Perseverance (eigenvalue = 1.16), accounting for 61% of the variance in scale items. The HIV-ASES demonstrates robust internal consistency (ρs > .90) and 3-month (rs > .70) and 15-month (rs > .40) test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity analyses revealed relationships with psychosocial measures, ART adherence, clinical status, and healthcare utilization. 


Web link to tool: 

Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


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