Risk

A Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) Scale

People differ in the way they resolve decisions involving risk and uncertainty, and these differences are often described as differences in risk attitude. In the expected utility framework and its variants, including prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992), such apparent differences in risk attitude are modeled by utility functions that differ in shape, with different degrees of concavity (convexity) to explain risk aversion (seeking).

Author of Tool: 

Blais, Ann-René and Weber, Elke U.

Dark Triad of Personality (D3-Short)

Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three triad members - machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy, often show differential correlates but share a common callousness.  To tease apart the triad members, Paulhus and Williams (2002) initiated a program of research to evaluate the degree of distinctiveness of the Dark Triad, both conceptually and empirically.

Author of Tool: 

Paulhus, D. L

Relationship Incentive and Threat Sensitivity Scales (RITSS)

Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. The Relationship Incentive and Threat Sensitivity Scales (RITSS) was developed to assess individual differences in incentive and threat sensitivity that are specific to the context of intimate relationships. It has been used in only a little research thus far.

Author of Tool: 

Carver, C. S.

Two Factor Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14)

The consideration of future consequences scale was developed by Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger & Edwards (1994). The original items on the scale are items 1-12. Most research using the CFC scale has treated it as a uni-dimensional construct. Internal reliability for the overall, 12-item scale is high (typically ranging from .80 to .85) with a five-week temporal stability of .72 (Strathman et al., 1994) (for a recent review of the CFC literature, see Joireman, Strathman, & Balliet, 2006).

Author of Tool: 

Jeff Joireman, Monte J. Shaffer, Daniel Balliet and Alan Strathman

Considerations of Future Consequences (CFC Scale)

Given their intertemporal nature, one factor that predicts health behaviors is an individual’s CFC (i.e., the extent to which people consider the potential distant outcomes of their current behaviors and are influenced by those potential outcomes; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994).    The Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) is a 12- item scale using 5- point ratings.  (1 = extremely uncharacteristic to 5 = extremely characteristic).

Author of Tool: 

Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S

HIV & Safer Sex: Self Efficacy Scale

Safer sex is first defined for participants as any combination of the following behavioral strategies:

A) Abstinence from vaginal and anal intercourse.

B) Condom Use with all vaginal and anal sexual partners.

C) Sexually exclusive relationship with only one partner in the past year who has tested negative for HIV antibodies.

Author of Tool: 

Redding, C. & Rossi, J

Risk Behavior for Gay Men: EXPLORE Project

Three questionnaires under the title of 'Risk Behavior for Gay Men' were used in Explore; a nationwide HIV prevention behavioral trial involving nearly 4,300 men who have sex with men. Explore was one of the largest behavioral studies of its kind, and included participants recruited from six cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle. The study’s purpose was to examine whether an intensified program of counseling helps to prevent men who have sex with men from getting HIV.  The 

Author of Tool: 

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Sexual Behavior for Students at Public Middle Schools Questionnaire

The questionnaire included a large number of questions about sexuality, including questions on the following topics: existence of a boyfriend/girlfriend and age difference of that boy/girlfriend, knowledge about sexual topics, self-efficacy to avoid various sexual behaviors, norms about various sexual behaviors, perceptions of peer behaviors, opportunity to have sex, pressures to have sex, pre-coital sexual behaviors, various measures of sexual behavior, attempts to pressure someone else to have sex, and reasons to have and not to have sex. 

Author of Tool: 

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

CAPS National Sexual Health Survey (NSHS)

The National Sexual Health Survey (NSHS) is national telephone survey of adults 18 years and older residing in the 48 contiguous states. Measures were developed to assess a wide range of HIV-related and human sexuality topics including, but not limited to, the following: condom attitudes, condom slips and breaks, HIV-related caregiving, HIV testing and home testing use, STD histories, perceived risk for HIV and other STDs and optimistic bias assessments, extramarital sex, sexual development, sexual abuse and rape, and sexual dysfunctions.

Author of Tool: 

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)
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