Joireman, J., Balliet, D., Sprott, D., Spangenberg, E., & Schultz, J. (2008). Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion, and self-control: Support for distinguishing between CFC-immediate and CFC-future sub-scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 15-21.
Joireman, J., Shaffer, M., Balliet, D., & Strathman, A. (2012). Promotion orientation explains why future oriented people exercise and eat healthy: Evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences 14 scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1272-1287.
Joireman, J., Strathman, A., & Balliet, D. (2006). Considering future consequences: An integrative model. In L. Sanna & E. Chang (Eds.), Judgments over time: The interplay of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (82-99). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 742-752.
Primary use / Purpose:
The consideration of future consequences scale was developed by Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger & Edwards (1994). The original items on the scale are items 1-12. Most research using the CFC scale has treated it as a uni-dimensional construct. Internal reliability for the overall, 12-item scale is high (typically ranging from .80 to .85) with a five-week temporal stability of .72 (Strathman et al., 1994) (for a recent review of the CFC literature, see Joireman, Strathman, & Balliet, 2006). While the internal reliability of the overall scale is quite high, recent research suggests the scale contains two subscales, one tapping consideration of immediate consequences (CFC-I), the other tapping consideration of future consequences (CFC-F) (Joireman, Balliet, Sprott, Spangenberg, & Schultz, 2008). More recently, the CFC scale has been expanded to a 14-item scale (with 2 new future items to improve the reliability of the CFC-Future subscale) (Joireman, Shaffer, Balliet, & Strathman, 2012). Also, while the original used a 5-point scale, to create more variance the Two Factor Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC-14) uses a 7-point scale.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the revised CFC-14 scale supported the presence of two highly reliable factors (CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate; alphas from .80 to .84). Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that those high in CFC-Future engage in exercise and healthy eating because they adopt a promotion orientation.