The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule

Author of Tool: 

Watson, D.

Key references: 

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form. Ames: The University of Iowa. 

Primary use / Purpose: 

The PANAS-X assesses the specific, distinguishable affective emotional states that emerge from within the broader general dimensions of positive and negative emotional experience.

Background: 

In recent research, two broad, general factors—typically labeled Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA)—have emerged reliably as the dominant dimensions of emotional experience. These factors have been identified in both intraand interindividual analyses, and they emerge consistently across diverse descriptor sets, time frames, response formats, languages, and cultures. The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule , is a 60-item, expanded version of the PANAS. In addition to the two original higher order scales, the PANAS-X measures 11 specific affects: Fear, Sadness,Guilt, Hostility, Shyness, Fatigue, Surprise, Joviality,Self-Assurance, Attentiveness, and Serenity. 

Psychometrics: 

See article (Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form. Ames: The University of Iowa) for full psychometric description

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