Need for Closure Scale (NFC)

Author of Tool: 

Kruglanski, A. W., Atash, M. N., De Grada, E., Mannetti, L., & Pierro, A.

Key references: 

Kruglanski, A. W., Atash, M. N., De Grada, E., Mannetti, L., & Pierro, A. (1997). Psychological theory testing versus psychometric nay saying: Need for closure scale and the Neuberg et al. critique.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1005-1016.
Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1998). Cognitive and social consequences of the need for cognitive closure. European Review of Social Psychology, 8, 133-173.

Primary use / Purpose: 

The scale assesses the need for cognitive closure.

Background: 

The decision to pursue or avoid closure is motivated by the costs and benefits of choices in the particular situation (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). The benefits of closure include the ability to act once a decision is made and the possibility of receiving action-related rewards. The costs of closure include consuming cognitive energy, the risk of making costly judgmental errors, and the reduction of options and freedom that follows from making a decision. The weighting of benefits and costs can be experimentally manipulated by inducing mental fatigue through lengthy tests or by imposing time pressure for reaching consensus or making a decision (see the review by Webster & Kruglanski, 1998). Therefore, need for closure can change over time and across situations. In social and personality psychology, there is a growing recognition of the influence of motivational forces on cognition. The construct of need for cognitive closure has had an elaborate theoretical foundation (Kruglanski & Webster, 1996; Webster & Kruglanski, 1998), and the NFC Scale was found to predict a wide range of important social cognitive processes in well-controlled experimental settings (see the review by Webster & Kruglanski, 1998).

Psychometrics: 

For psychometrics, see Kuglanski, A. W., Atash, M. N., De Grada, E., Mannetti, L., & Pierro, A. (1997). Psychological theory testing versus psychometric nay saying: Need for closure scale and the Neuberg et al. critique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73,http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~hannahk/The_Need_for_Closure_files/dot_clear_6.gif1005-1016.

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